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11.1 Industrialisation - good or bad?
Industrialisation is the the development of an industry on an extensive scale.
Many people believe that Industrialisation is good, but some believe it's bad.
11.2 Changing employment
Industrialisation offers many job opportunities , enhancing home development for better living conditions. It strikes out improvised communities, reduces marginalisation, and closes the gap between the wealthy and the poor. It also provides experience for the trained youth or the young adults who have just graduated from university with limited skills, here is the opportunity to enhance one's skill.
11.3 Understanding globalisation
Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange. Globalisation has increased the production of goods and services. The biggest companies are no longer national firms, but multinational corporations with subsidiaries in many countries.
Reasons for globalisation...
There are several key factors which have influenced the process of globalisation:
GEOGRAPHY: PEOPLE AND PLANET:
11.1 - 11.10
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11.4 How does globalisation work?
Globalisation has been taking place for hundreds of years, but has speeded up enormously over the last half-century.
Globalisation has resulted in:
11.5 Keeping the economy afloat
11.6 Globalisation - who wins and loses?
Economists focus on free trade in goods, services, labor, and capital, and the institutional rules that make
this possible between (rather than just internal to) countries.
There are also issues of cultural homogenization (e.g., a “race to the bottom” of a mass consumption society).
Examples of baby milk powder, McDonald’s, and clean bathrooms.
Larger corporations tend to be more involved in international trade, and some worry about monopoly power. However, competition between large corporations in different countries reduces monopoly
11.7 How TNC's operate - E.g Apple
TNC Report: Apple
Apple are an American multinational corporation headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software and personal computers. Its best-known hardware products are the Mac line of computers, the iPod music player, the iPhone smartphone, and the iPad tablet computer. Its consumer software includes the OS X and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media browser, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites.
Apple has 406 retail stores up to this date. In California, there have 46 stores, and the other 334 are scattered around Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Nevada, Nebraska, Missouri, Mississippi and many other stores.
Apple has 72,800 full-time equivalent" employees, up from 60,400 last year. The company also went from employing 2,900 "full-time equivalent” temporary employees and contractors to 3,300. 42,400 "full-time equivalent" employees are in the retail division, up from 36,000 last year
Throughout their history, Apple has created entirely new products and entirely new industries by focusing on innovation. As a result, they’ve created and supported nearly 600,000 jobs for U.S. workers: from the engineer who helped invent the iPad to the delivery person who brings it to your door.
The advantages of having a TNC in a LEDC country is that it brings plenty of jobs, like how many jobs were created when Apple opened up. It also helps by bringing new technology in the country. Moreover, it develops trade links with other countries, creating stronger bonds between them.
The disadvantages of having a TNC in a LEDC country is that the companies can leave the country at any time, leaving the locals without jobs. The work done creates pollution. Usually, few skilled workers are employed and jobs are often repetitive and low skilled. The important disadvantage is that, the needs of the country are rarely considered.
The advantages of having a TNC in a MEDC country are that there are cheaper imports from the LEDCs. There is greater efficiency cause by outsourcing leads to the development of new technologies in MEDCs, attracting foreign investment.
The disadvantages of having a TNC in a MEDC country is that the outsourcing of jobs leads to job losses within MEDCS, these are often of unskilled workers. If there are job losses in certain areas or industries, this can lead to deindustrialisation, mass unemployment and social problems. There may be poor working conditions, natural resources being over exploited.
In my opinion, I believe that TNCs are making a positive impact in the global economy; they create many jobs and improve some families’ quality of life. Before, the economies of many countries depended on local businesses, and had less chance of employment, but after the n of TNCs, everything has changed.