Economies of scale
There are benefits and drawbacks in increasing the size of operation of a business. The cost advantage is known as economies of scale. The cost disadvantage is known as diseconomies of scale.
The benefits of large-scale business
Economies of scale are the cost advantage from business expansion. As some firms grow in size their unit costs begin to fall because of:
Purchasing economies when large businesses often receive a discount because they are buying in bulk. Marketing economies from spreading the fixed cost of promotion over a larger level of output. Administrative economies from spreading the fixed cost of management staff and IT systems over a larger level of output. Research and development economies from spreading the fixed costs of developing new or improved products over a larger level of output.
When an object or substance vibrates, it produces sound:
- the greater the amplitude, the louder the sound
- the greater the frequency, the higher the pitch.
Human hearing range
The normal range of human hearing is between around 20 Hz to 20 kHz, but the range becomes less as we get older. Sounds with frequencies above about 20 kHz are called ultrasound.
Three measurements of the Speed of Sound
- Stand 50cm away from a wall
- When you clap, start a timer. When you hear the echoes, stop the timer.
2: Resonance Tube & Tuning Forks
- Fill up your resonance tube with water
- Strike tuning fork
- Using the water reservoir, lower the water surface. Listen for an increase in amplitude.
- When you find the loudest point, mark it with a rubber brand.